This short video describes a concern with using air to air heat pumps as the primary source of heat in cold climates like Michigan. The examples are mini-split systems, but the same concern applies with central heating systems.
A few more notes on mini-split heat pumps:
Some units have a back-up electric heater built into them. But, from the description it isn’t clear to me if it is for the defrost issue or for actual heat in the home. If it is heat in the home then it is still a lot less effective than the heat pump, otherwise the current rating of the circuit would need to be three times the size of what the heat pump would use.
Also, mini-splits can vary from a SEER of 13 up to a SEER of almost 30. That makes them much more efficient at air conditioning than what we see in most home these days.
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